© Copyright – 2013 – Athletics Illustrated
Below is additional information about what banned substances track and field athletes have tested positive for during 2013.
Five Jamaican track and field athletes tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs at the 2013 Jamaican Athletics Championships. They were sprinters Veronica Campbell-Brown, Asafa Powell and Sherone Simpson as well as high jumper Demar Robinson and discus throwers Allison Randall and Traves Smikle. There are several more unnamed athletes, rumoured to be from Jamaica that apparently have had positive tests. The Jamaicans apparently had tested positive for Oxilofrine. American Tyson Gay also tested positive for a stimulant however, the drug was not officially identified. All sprinters denied any wrong doing.
Thirty-one Turkish athletes tested positive for anabolic steroids during 2013. They tested positive primarily for two drugs, Stanozolol and Turinabol. In November 2013, hundreds of tests from the 2012 London Olympic Games also returned positive for the latter two drugs. None of the above named athletes competed in the 2013 IAAF World Track and Field Championships.
Turkey exonerated their most well-known athlete to have been tested positive for anabolic steroids, twice. Fifteen-hundred metre Olympic gold medallist, Asli Ckir Alptkin, already having served a suspension for two years for doping infractions committed in 2004 faced a lifetime ban this time, subsequently (on December 3rd), the Turkish Athletics Federation lifted her suspension.
At laboratories situated in Cologne and Moscow, while incorporating new testing methods, hundreds of urine samples have tested positive for large amounts of anabolic steroids, taken from the 2012 London Olympic Games. Orally-taken Turinabol is one of the agents detected. Turinabol was identified that was under heavy usage during the state-run doping programme of the former East German sports machine. And, just as in Turkey, Stanozolol was also detected. However, with the new testing method called, ‘long-term metabolites method’, steroids can now be detected more than six months after they were taken – creating a much longer arm to the laws of Wada.
Oxilofrine is a stimulant created to treat hypotension or low blood pressure. Oxilofrine is the brand name of methylsynephrine, hyproxyephrine and oxyephrine. Some people use the amphetamine to reduce fat.
The effects are an increase adrenaline production, which boosts endurance, alertness and heart rate and increases oxygenation of the blood.
Long-term use of the drug could put result in tachycardias, cardiac dysrhythmia, which is irregular heartbeat and haemorrhagic stroke. It could also have the opposite effect of its intended use and cause hypertension or high blood pressure.
WADA – The World Anti-Doping Agency consider it a performance-enhancing drug, and it is on their list of banned substances. This is what the Wada website says:
Oxilofrine is found in its anti-doping code in “stimulants: section S6″ in section “b: specified stimulants”. Wada states: “A specified substance is a substance which allows, under defined conditions, for a greater reduction of a two-year sanction when an athlete tests positive for that particular substance.”
First-time offenders typically get a two-year ban.
Thirty-one Turkish athletes tested positive for anabolic steroids during 2013. They tested positive primarily for two drugs, Stanozolol and Turinabol. In November 2013, hundreds of tests from the 2012 London Olympic Games also tested positive for these two drugs.
Stanozolol is sold under the brand name Winstrol for oral intake and Winstrol Depot for injection. The product is a synthetic anabolic steroid derived from dihydrotestosterone. The primary use of Stanozolol is to treat anaemia and hereditary angioedema. In animals, it is used to promote muscle growth and red blood cell production and increase bone density. It is used in horse racing and was made famous in 1988 by Canada’s Ben Johnson who broke the world 100-metre record and won Olympic gold in Seoul, Korea. He was later stripped of both, due to his usage of the steroid.
4-Chlorodehydromethyltestosterone or Turinabol is a modified version of Dianabol. It was developed in 1961 in East Germany one year before Stanozolol was created. It is an anabolic steroid and is on the list of banned substances according to the World Anti-Doping Agency. This drug has gained popularity as the side effects are lighter than many other anabolic steroids, however, the potential for androgenic include: increased oily skin, increased bouts of acne (a red flag) bodily and facial hair growth, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), and risk of developing male pattern baldness in individuals that possess the genetic trait required for the condition to manifest itself. Women will increase their chances of experiencing virilisation. Virilisation is the development of differences between male and female bodies, which are caused by androgens.
Historical list of banned track and field athletes
List of banned anabolic steroids:
This is the complete list of exogenous (non-natural) androgenic agents banned as of January 1, 2012:
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